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BIOTECHNOLOGIA NA WOJNIE

Istnieje tak zwana czarna biotechnologia, która łączy się z bioterroryzmem. Czy powinniśmy się jej bać? Czy medycyna tego typu sprawi, że znikną znane nam pola walki, w których używane są czołgi i broń palna?

Biotechnologia ma zastosowanie w wielu sektorach. Rozróżnić ją możemy kolorami. Pod kolorem czerwonym kryje się biotechnologia medyczna, zielonym – rolna, natomiast niebieskim – morska. W naszej naturze, gdzieś głęboko pod skórą czyha rządza spełnienia, podbijania nowych terenów, chęć zemsty. Dlatego też ludzkość doskonale zdaje sobie sprawę z tego, że można także przygotować technikę, która w łatwy sposób może z korzystnej dla zdrowia stać się śmiercionośną bronią. To właśnie kolorem czarnym, nawiązującym do śmierci, zaznaczono ten sektor biotechnologii.

W USA po 11 września 2001 roku senatorom przesyłano listy z przetrwalnikami węglika. Inny, starszy atak bioterrorystyczny miał miejsce w metrze w Tokio, gdzie w 1995 roku rozpylono toksynę botulinową. Dużo słyszeliśmy także o ataku chemicznym w Syrii, gdzie USA wskazywało na Rosję, ta zaprzeczała. Do ataku miało dojść w Dumie, gdzie SAMS poinformował o bombie chlorowej, która uderzyła w szpital, zabijając przy tym sześć osób. Drugi atak miał miejsce w budynku mieszkalnym, gdzie zginęło aż 35 osób.

Broń biologiczna. Jak to wygląda w teorii?

Broń B jest to tak zwana broń masowego rażenia. Nie mamy tu typowych ładunków jak w przypadku broni palnej. Rolę ładunku odgrywają patogenne mikroorganizmy lub wirusy. Do broni biologicznej można także zaliczyć broń, która jest oparta na toksynach typu rycyna, botulina, czyli pochodzenia biologicznego. Może być stosowana nie tylko na pojedynczych żołnierzy czy oddziały. Bronią B można zaatakować ludność cywilną lub jednorodne monokultury roślinne, a także hodowle zwierząt, co nazywamy terroryzmem socjoekonomicznym.

Broń biologiczną można wyprodukować niewielkim kosztem. Jest bardzo skuteczna, a także słabo wykrywalna na początkowym etapie. Jak stosuje się broń B? Najczęściej wykorzystuje się do tego pociski artyleryjskie lub bomby lotnicze, aczkolwiek zdarzały się sytuacje, gdy zrzucano ją z samolotów w postaci pakietów lub przesyłano je pocztą. Mało tego, broń biologiczną można rozpylić jak aerozol, w powietrzu lub wykonać kontaminację wody i żywności.

Bioterroryzm zaczął się niedawno? Nic bardziej mylnego!

Uznajmy, że początkiem bioterroryzmu było pierwsze użycie broni biologicznej. Już w starożytności zatruwano strzały toksynami oraz podrzucano jadowite węże na wrogie statki. Mowa o praktykach Hannibala. Aleksander Macedoński także wykorzystywał broń B. Wyglądało to nad wyraz ciekawie. W czasie wycofywania się z pól bitewnych nakazywał porzucanie zwłok koni i żołnierzy, którzy zmarli na choroby zakaźne. Wiele osób za początek bioterroryzmu uznaje lata 70. XX wieku. To wtedy ruch Weather Undrground chciał skazić wodę substancjami toksycznymi. Natomiast w 1984 roku zatruto salmonellą bary sałatkowe w stanie Oregon. Zachorowało 751 osób. Za sprawą działań FBI został udaremniony zamach, który zorganizować chciała grupa Minnesota Patriots Council. Za sprawą użycia rycyny, która była w postaci aerozolu i kremu chciano wywołać sporo szkód. Na szczęście atak ten nie doszedł do skutku.

Wróćmy jeszcze do czasów II Wojny Światowej czy „zimnej wojny”. Czy wtedy także użyto broni B? Na szczęście nie, z racji Protokołu Genewskiego z 17 czerwca 1925, a także Konwencji, która zakazywała zarówno prowadzenia badań, produkcji, jak i gromadzenia zapasów broni biologicznej i toksycznej.

Użycie biotechnologii na wojnie

Patogenów, które mogłyby siać spustoszenie jest naprawdę dużo. Przykładowo pałeczka Yersinia petis może powodować dżumę. Natomiast Clostridium botulinum to bakteria, która potrafi wyprodukować najsilniejszą truciznę na świecie, gdzie dawka śmiertelna dla człowieka wynosi zaledwie kilkaset nanogramów! Jest też wirus czarnej ospy o nazwie Variola major oraz Zaire ebolavirus, który powoduje gorączkę krwotoczną. Wirusy te są naprawdę bardzo niebezpieczne. Przykładowo większość populacji nie jest już odporna na wirusa czarnej ospy. Co prawda on już wygasł, ale kto powiedział, że nie wróci? Niestety genetyka jest tak zaawansowana, że inżynierowie mogą spowolnić rozwój danej bakterii, co zaowocowałoby zarażeniem większej części społeczeństwa przed pojawieniem się objawów. Izolacja chorych byłaby znacznie trudniejsza. Wiele słyszy się także o GMO, które może zawierać groźne toksyny.

Czarny sektor biotechnologii jest bardzo niebezpieczny jeśli chodzi o wojnę. Terroryści oraz strony konfliktu mogą szybko i, co gorsza, skutecznie w prosty sposób wywołać ogromny problem nie tylko wśród żołnierzy i cywili. Dotyczy to także Matki Natury.

Masowy atak

Bioterroryzm (przynajmniej oficjalnie) nie zachęca terrorystów do użycia niebezpiecznych substancji. Dlaczego Problemów jest kilka. Przede wszystkim biotechnologia nie zapewnia, a wręcz nie daje zupełnie jakiejkolwiek kontroli. Wirusy nie wiedzą czy atakują wroga, czy przyjaciela. Zabijają po prostu wszystkich. Dlatego użyte na danym terenie mogą sięgać także jej twórców. Oczywiście zdarzały się historie, gdy broń była stworzona tak, aby dotykać konkretnej rasy, na szczęście nie słyszy się już o takich atakach.

Kolejnym problemem bioterroryzmu jest to, ze patogeny mogą ewoluować, co może sprawić, że będą np. odporne na antybiotyki, a to może sprawić, że i twórca, czyli strona atakująca, będzie miała problem z wirusem. Nie można wykluczać także takiej ewolucji, która początkowo była stworzona, aby atakować zwierzęta, a zaczyna zagrażać ludziom.

Krótko mówiąc, jest to śmiertelne zagrożenie, które może spowodować niewyobrażalne spustoszenia. Miejmy nadzieję, że ludzie nie będą rozwijać tak zwanej broni B, ponieważ taki atak może nie tylko zabić wiele ludzi, w tym kobiety czy dzieci, a także zniszczyć nasze środowisko naturalne.

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