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Problemy psychologiczne i społeczne starszych osób

Starość to nieunikniony etap życia, a przez dynamiczny rozwój medycyny staje się on coraz dłuższy. W ostatnim ćwierćwieczu liczba osób w wieku co najmniej 60 lat wzrosła w społeczeństwie o 7,5 punktu procentowego. Psycholodzy zaobserwowali, że u osób starszych notuje się wysokie ryzyko wystąpienia depresji. Współcześni seniorzy borykają się z problemem marginalizacji, który postępuje stopniowo, począwszy od wycofania się z pełnienia ról społecznych i zawężenia kontaktów międzyludzkich, po ograniczony dostęp do wielu usług, dóbr czy instytucji, aż do narastającej izolacji prowadzącej do niemal całkowitego wycofania się z życia społecznego.

Bardzo istotnym wydarzeniem dotykającym ludzi w okresie starzenia się, jest śmierć współmałżonka. To traumatyczne doświadczenie znajduje się na pierwszym miejscu wśród czynników stresogennych, które drastycznie obniżają jakość życia. Ze względu na wyższą średnią długość życia – problem wdowieństwa dotyczy głównie kobiet. Niepokojące są również doniesienia, że w grupie osób powyżej 75 roku życia notuje się najwyższe wskaźniki samobójstw wśród wszystkich grup wiekowych.

Relacje międzypokoleniowe kluczem do większej satysfakcji z życia

Okazuje się jednak, że im bliższe i bardziej satysfakcjonujące relacje z wnukami mają seniorzy, tym rzadziej przejawiają symptomy depresji. Częste kontakty z najbliższą rodziną mogą zastępować te utracone w wyniku śmierci współmałżonka czy przyjaciół. Psycholog Karolina Janowska podkreśla, że zażyłe związki międzypokoleniowe, które zapewniają obu stronom poczucie bycia akceptowanym i lubianym, współwystępują z lepszym stanem zdrowia psychicznego. Badania prowadzone przez Małgorzatę Halicką pokazały, że zaburzone relacje z dziećmi zwiększają ośmiokrotnie ryzyko niezadowolenia z dorobku życiowego.

Co wpływa na poczucie zadowolenia z życia?

Halina Zielińska-Więczkowska i Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska wśród wielu czynników wpływających na satysfakcję z życia w okresie starości wymieniają: kondycję fizyczną, subiektywną ocenę stanu zdrowia, aktywność życiową, poziom wykształcenia, poczucie koherencji, optymizm życiowy i sytuację rodzinną. Badania wykazały, że osoby mające bardziej optymistycznie podejście do życia, lepiej oceniają swój stan zdrowia. Ponadto, przejawiają oni mniej objawów somatycznych, nie cierpią z powodu zaburzeń depresyjnych, nie odczuwają niepokoju i najczęściej nie dotyka ich problem bezsenności.

Jakie czynniki pomagają przejść przez okres adaptacji do życia na emeryturze?

W procesie przystosowania się do starości istotną rolę odgrywają zasoby osobiste i społeczne. Pewne dyspozycje osobowościowe ułatwiają adaptację do zmian zachodzących w otoczeniu i wpływają na jakość życia starszych osób. Równie ważne są cechy związane z oceną możliwości poradzenia sobie w sytuacjach kryzysowych, które nierozerwalnie związane są z oczekiwaniami wobec własnej przyszłości.

Artykuł powstał przy współpracy z redakcją czasopisma Psychologiawpraktyce.pl.

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