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Wpływ globalizacji na rynek pracy. Cz. I

Trudno powiedzieć, kiedy właściwie rozpoczęły się procesy związane z globalizacją, bo tak naprawdę trwają od najdawnieszych czasów. Handel, barterowa wymiana towarowa, przemieszczanie się ludności to zjawiska trwające od początków znanej nam historii. Jednak rozwój środków transportu, a w kolejnych etapach środków komunikacji i łączności sprawił, że zjawiska, które dawniej zachodziły przez stulecia, w obecnych czasach dokonują się nawet w ciągu kilku dni lub nawet godzin.1 Wystarczy przytoczyć choćby spadki giełdowe po trzęsieniach ziemi w Japonii czy krachu giełdowym w USA.

Zmiany dotyczące takich obszarów jak przemysł wytwórczy, filmowy, infomatyczny, wydarzenia w świecie mody i odkrycia naukowe obecnie zachodzą z siłą, można by powiedzieć, żywiołu. Firmy międzynarodowe zlecają prace administracyjne, architektoniczne, badawczo-rozwojowe, informatyczne, księgowe i finansowe oraz z zakresu obsługi klientów linii lotniczych. Wielkie korporacje przeniosły centra obsługi klientów do takich krajów jak na przykład Indie i z wykorzystaniem najnowszych technologii informatycznych, jak Voice over IP, obsługują swoich klientów z całego świata tylko w takimi jednym ośrodku, który pracuje przez całą dobę. Czasem z uwagi na różne strefy czasowe tworzone są takie centra właśnie dla określonej strefy czasowej. Przy największych korporacjach są to zwykle trzy takie centra.

Obecnie najczęściej kraje zachodnie korzystają ze zleceń realizowanych w krajach azjatyckich. Zabrzmi to trochę przedmiotowo w stosunku do ludzi, ale tam właśnie tzw. siła robocza, spełniająca określone wymagania jakościowe (poziom wykształcenia, umiejętność szybkiego przystosowywania się do zmian) jest najtańsza.
Jeszcze niedawno gospodarki poszczególnych krajów były traktowane jako oddzielnie funkcjonujące rzeczywistości. Dziś zarówno w sferze ekonomicznej jak i rynkowej stanowią one coś w rodzaju gęsto splecionej pajęczyny, w której jedna nitka jest ściśle uzależniona od drugiej. Nie może się to więc obyć bez echa na zmianach na rynkach pracy w poszczególnych krajach czy branżach.

Mariusz Paszko
Redaktor Naczelny - wywiady, historia, gospodarka, wiedza, technologie.

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