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Przewlekła niewydolność nerek u psów

Przewlekła niewydolność nerek u psów wymaga trafnej diagnozy oraz wczesnego podjęcia leczenia. Pozwala to znacznie podnieść komfort życia zwierzęcia oraz przedłużyć je mimo nieodwracalnego charakteru choroby. Bardzo ważnym punktem w tym wypadku jest właściwe żywienie psa, które zostanie przedstawione w poniższym artykule. Pozwala ono na spowolnienie pogarszania się stanu klinicznego zwierzęcia. Efekty leczenia zależą od zarówno od lekarza weterynarii, jak i opiekuna, który powinien ściśle przestrzegać wyznaczonych zaleceń.

Czym jest przewlekła niewydolność nerek?

Przewlekła niewydolność nerek postępuje powoli, lecz nieodwracalnie, prowadząc z czasem do śmierci zwierzęcia. To zaburzenie funkcjonowania nerek, które może mieć różne przyczyny: nieleczone infekcje dróg moczowych, zakażenia, czy kamice. Bardzo częstym morfologicznym objawem jest śródmiąższowe zapalenie nerek. Innym istotnym czynnikiem wpływającym na stan nerek jest również stres, nie bez znaczenia jest także niewłaściwe żywienie. Niestety ustalenie przyczyn przewlekłej niewydolności nerek jest bardzo trudne.

Postępowanie dietetyczne w przewlekłej niewydolności nerek

Dieta chorego zwierzęcia powinna być zbilansowana pod względem stosunku wapnia do fosforu, zawartości białka, sodu, potasu oraz kwasów tłuszczowych z grupy omega-3. Należy również określić zapotrzebowanie energetyczne psa oraz ilości wody, której potrzebuje on dla prawidłowego funkcjonowania nerek.

Właściwe leczenie w przypadku tej choroby jest niezbędne, lecz jest ono złożonym problemem wymagającym indywidualnego podejścia do każdego pacjenta. Określenie potrzeb żywieniowych psa powinno być oparte na aktualnych badaniach klinicznych, laboratoryjnych, możliwościach opiekuna, a także samopoczuciu i apetycie psa. Należy pamiętać, że choć zapotrzebowanie energetyczne u chorych zwierząt nie zmienia się, to z czasem apetyt zwierzęcia spada, pojawia się utrata masy mięśniowej, anemia, spadek wartości albumin i białka całkowitego w osoczu.

Żywienie specjalne należy rozpocząć w chwili zaobserwowania niskiego ciężaru właściwego moczu czy proteinurii przy braku azotemii. Dietę psa chorującego na przewlekłe zapalenie nerek powinna wyróżniać obniżona zawartość fosforu i zwiększona zawartość kwasów EPA/DHA i kompleksu przeciwutleniaczy. Trzeba pamiętać, że pies jest zwierzęciem mięsożernym, które nawet mimo choroby musi przyjmować białko zawarte w zewnętrznych i wewnętrznych częściach ciała zwierząt ciepłokrwistych przeznaczonych do spożycia.

Dieta BARF w przewlekłej niewydolności nerek

Bardzo dużym wsparciem dla chorego zwierzęcia może być dieta BARF oparta na surowym mięsie. Pozwala ona na właściwe zbilansowanie posiłków pod względem zawartości białka, tłuszczów, fosforu, wapnia oraz potasu. Ponadto ogromną zaletą BARF jest fakt, że jest to dieta mokra, która wspiera utrzymanie właściwego poziomu nawodnienia organizmu, a psy cenią jej walory smakowe. Warto zatem zwrócić się do dietetyka zwierzęcego, który ustali właściwe komponenty posiłków, maksymalnie dostosowane do potrzeb psa.

Artykuł powstał we współpracy z czasopismem Animal Expert.

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