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Home > Edukacja > Znaczenie motywacji pracowników, cz . I (Archiwum)

Znaczenie motywacji pracowników, cz . I (Archiwum)

Wśród zagadnień związanych z profesjonalnym zarządzaniem współczesnym przedsiębiorstwem motywowanie pracowników stanowi jeden z najistotniejszych jego elementów. Jak to się dzieje, że jedni pracownicy posiadają bardzo silną wewnętrzną motywację, podczas gdy inni wymagają szczególnej opieki i stałego pobudzania zewnętrznego, aby byli wydajni, efektywni i mogli odczuwać zadowolenie z wykonywanej pracy? Czy świadomość samego procesu motywowania wpływa korzystnie na wydajność pracowników, zespołów i przedsiębiorstw?

W okresach recesji myślenie bardzo wielu firm skupia się najczęściej na cięciu kosztów. Przejawia się to w wielu obszarach ich funkcjonowania, jak na przykład w negocjacjach z dostawcami, obniżaniu kosztów transportu czy podzespołów. Bardzo wiele firm dokonuje też cięć budżetów przeznaczonych na szkolenia, obniża premie pracowników, zatrudnia mniej wykwalifikowane kadry. Jak się jednak okazuje, szkolenia według teorii Abrahama Maslowa należą do najwyższej kategorii potrzeb i brak ich zaspokajania powoduje spadek motywacji i zaangażowania pracowników, a tym samym w dłuższym okresie czasu firma również na tym traci. Jakie jeszcze inne czynniki są istotne w procesie uzyskiwania maksymalnych wyników przez daną organizację?

Źródłosłów terminu pochodzi z łaciny od ‘motivus-tea’, co oznacza ‘skłaniający do ruchu’ lub jak podają też czasem inne źródła od słowa ‘movere’ oznaczającego ‘wprawiać w ruch’.

Z analizy literatury dotyczącej tego zagadnienia wynika, że definicje opisujące proces motywacji opierają się na założeniach, że motywacja:

  • jest to coś pozytywnego,
  • jest jednym z kilku czynników składających się na efektywność danej osoby, a czasem zanika i trzeba ją co jakiś czas uzupełniać;
  • jest narzędziem, za pomocą którego menedżerowie mogą kształtować stosunki pracy w organizacji.

Dla celów praktycznych mających bezpośredni związek z teoriami motywacji oraz efektami działań motywacyjnych w przedsiębiorstwach w zakresie obszaru motywacji wyróżnić można następujące pojęcia:

  1. Motywacja – jest najczęściej definiowana jako stan gotowości człowieka do podjęcia określonego działania. Stan ten obejmuje czynniki powodujące, że zachowanie człowiek zmierza w określonym kierunku. Czynniki te wywołują, ukierunkowują i podtrzymują określone działania człowieka w opozycji do innych alternatywnych dla niego form zachowania w taki sposób aby założone przez niego cele zostały osiągnięte.
  2. Motywowanie jest z kolei praktycznym sposobem zastosowania wspomnianych wyżej czynników i zawiera różne formy i środki oddziaływające na pracowników w taki sposób, aby zmierzały do pozytywnego zrealizowania zadań przed nimi postawionych.
  3. Motywatory – są to czynniki wzbudzające i pobudzające proces motywacji.
  4. Motywy – powstają z motywatorów po przyjęciu i uwzględnieniu ich przez człowieka. Wyrażają się w postaci pragnień, impulsów, emocji, uczuć. Ich istotą jest fakt, że to właśnie z powodu motywów człowiek stara się zrealizować określone cele. W procesie motywacyjnym – warto tu dodać – najczęściej działa kilka motywów dominujących.

Równoczesne działanie więcej niż jednego motywu, z których każdy jest wystarczającym powodem wykonania danej czynności nazwana polimotywacyjnością zachowania. I taka sytuacja występuje w żywym środowisku pracy najczęściej.

W odniesieniu do efektywności pracy motywację można zdefiniować jako siłę motoryczną ludzkich zachowań. Pełni ona tu jedną z głównych ról i “zależy od możliwości, zdolności i umiejętności, wspartych odpowiednią motywacją, wolą i chęcią działania, co można wyrazić w formule”:

Wiedzieć x Móc x Chcieć => Efektywność

W kolejnych częściach będą podane wyniki badań z konkretnych firm, wraz z praktycznymi wskazówkami, jak sobie radzić z utrzymywaniem prawidłowego poziomu motywacji oraz ze zwiększaniem jej.

Mariusz Paszko
Redaktor Naczelny - wywiady, historia, gospodarka, wiedza, technologie.

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