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Home > Edukacja > Czy wyższa edukacja w obecnej formie ma sens?

Czy wyższa edukacja w obecnej formie ma sens?

Debata otaczająca wyższą edukację jest nie tylko interesująca, lecz także całkiem złożona za sprawą specyfiki współczesnego świata. Istnieje szeroko rozpowszechniony pogląd, że z powodu dynamicznego charakteru technologii i świata biznesu wiedza szybko staje się przestarzała – jest to niepodważalny fakt. W związku z tym niektórzy obserwatorzy dochodzą do wniosku, że aspekt akademicki edukacji nie jest już ważny oraz że obecni studenci powinni przede wszystkim zdobywać umiejętności praktyczne. Ta zasada daje podstawę do twierdzenia, że system wyższej edukacji jest i pozostanie niezdolny do stawienia czoła wyzwaniom współczesnego świata.

„Trudno generalizować, a uogólnienia często nie oddają charakteru sytuacji”

Częściowo zgadzam się z tym argumentem. To prawda, że uniwersytety nie są najlepszymi miejscami do nauczania umiejętności praktycznych; jest również prawdą, że nasza wiedza szybko się dezaktualizuje. Ten argument ma jednak dwa słabe punkty. Po pierwsze, funkcjonuje całkiem oczywiste założenie, że zadaniem uniwersytetów jest nauczanie umiejętności praktycznych. Nie do końca się z tym zgadzam i postaram się pokazać, że ich funkcja jest inna. Po drugie, nie wierzę, że termin „system wyższej edukacji” ma współcześnie zastosowanie. Wraz z ekspansją i globalizacją wyższej edukacji w ciągu ostatnich dziesięcioleci taki system de facto nie istnieje – to, co istnieje, to olbrzymia liczba różnorodnych instytucji, programów i metod nauczania. A podczas gdy istnieje wiele doskonałych uniwersytetów i wielu profesorów oraz uniwersytety i profesorowie zaledwie przeciętni, są również uczelnie, których nie wybrałbym dla swoich dzieci. Z tego powodu postaram się opisać, co powinna obejmować wyższa edukacja wysokiej jakości w kontekście współczesnego świata oraz jak ja, jako nauczyciel akademicki, rozumiem moją pracę. W żadnym wypadku nie twierdzę, że mój opis przedstawi współczesne praktyki w sposób wyczerpujący. Jak już wspomniałem, nie można generalizować na temat dziesiątek tysięcy uniwersytetów oraz setek tysięcy wykładowców, którzy na nich pracują. Wiem jednak na pewno, że niektóre uniwersytety i niektórzy profesorowie postrzegają wyższą edukację w sposób podobny do mnie.

Wyższa edukacja nie jest odpowiednia dla każdego

Na początku chciałbym wyjaśnić, że moim zdaniem nie każdy potrzebuje wyższego wykształcenia. Na przykład w Niemczech na uniwersytetach lub uniwersytetach nauk stosowanych studiuje mniej niż połowa młodych ludzi. Reszta chodzi do szkół zawodowych, które wprawdzie uczą pewnych zagadnień teoretycznych, jednak w głównej mierze koncentrują się na praktyce. W krajach bez tradycji kształcenia zawodowego tę rolę musi przejąć edukacja wyższa, przez co powstaje jeszcze jeden tytuł licencjata. Uważam, że podwójny model akademicko-zawodowy jest korzystny dla młodych ludzi zainteresowanych zdobywaniem umiejętności praktycznych oraz dla uniwersytetów, które w przeciwnym razie stałyby się jeszcze bardziej zatłoczone.

Nie ma nic bardziej praktycznego niż solidna teoria

Studenci często pytają mnie: „Po co w ogóle uczymy się teorii?” Próbuję ich przekonać za pomocą dwóch prostych cytatów. Pierwszy z nich to zdanie wypowiedziane przez byłego niemieckiego ministra gospodarki w latach 90., Güntera Rexrodta, który stwierdził, że biznes jest prowadzony w gospodarce, a nie w ministerstwach, co można sparafrazować stwierdzeniem, że umiejętności praktyczne mają być nabywane w miejscu pracy, a nie na uniwersytecie. Zgodnie z drugim cytatem, który przypisuje się Immanuelowi Kantowi, „nie ma nic bardziej praktycznego niż dobra teoria”. To prawda, że ani ja, ani moi współpracownicy (uczący bardziej praktycznych przedmiotów niż ja) nie jesteśmy w stanie nauczyć studentów umiejętności praktycznych. Nawet w instytucji takiej jak moja, w której profesorowie zawsze mają pewne doświadczenie praktyczne spoza uniwersytetu, to doświadczenie często jest przestarzałe z powodu dynamicznych zmian, o których była mowa powyżej. Niemniej możemy przedstawić studentom różne teorie o relacjach przyczynowo-skutkowych istniejących w prawdziwym świecie. Poznawanie teorii ma przynajmniej dwa rezultaty. Po pierwsze, dają one fascynujący wgląd w prawdziwe zjawiska, które często w pierwszej chwili są niezrozumiałe, a zagłębienie się w strukturze teorii pozwala nabyć umiejętność metodycznego myślenia. Zauważyłem, że podczas studiów poznawanie określonych perspektyw teorii ekonomicznych daje studentom inny pogląd na świat w odniesieniu do typowych kwestii społecznych takich jak handel czy migracja. Po drugie, różne teorie stosowane do opisania pewnego zjawiska dają okazję do przeprowadzenia analizy krytycznej i dyskusji w celu zrozumienia warunków wstępnych i kroków logicznych, z których składają się te teorie. W ten sposób w trakcie dyskusji pomiędzy samymi studentami i z profesorem każdy może zbudować myślenie krytyczne i wykorzystać je do oceny i przefiltrowania różnych interpretacji rzeczywistości.

Duże ilości danych nie sprawiają, że świat staje się bardziej zrozumiały czy też przejrzysty

A co z tymi uciążliwymi metodami ilościowymi, na które narzeka wielu studentów? Obecnie mamy dostęp do coraz większych ilości danych, jednak nie sprawia to, że świat staje się bardziej zrozumiały czy też przejrzysty. Czerpanie z nich informacji i wiedzy wymaga stosowania coraz bardziej różnorodnych metod statystycznych. W ten sposób, w zależności od zastosowanej metody analitycznej, z tych samych danych mogą czasem zostać wyciągnięte różne, a nawet sprzeczne wnioski. Rozpoznane korelacje lub związki przyczynowo-skutkowe często prowadzą – celowo lub przypadkiem – do niebezpiecznych wniosków sprzyjających manipulacjom, czy to w codziennej działalności gospodarczej, czy też w debatach publicznych tworzących instytucje środowiska biznesowego. Bez przynajmniej podstawowej znajomości sztuczek związanych z takimi metodami każdy może popełnić istotne błędy podczas oceny swoich działań, stając się w ten sposób celem manipulacji ekspertów lub pseudoekspertów, których analizy empiryczne nie spełniają standardów krytycznego myślenia – zwykle nabywanych w procesie zdobywania wyższego wykształcenia.

Potrzebna jest reforma, a nie rewolucja

Pomimo wspomnianego wyżej problemu niedopuszczalności uogólnień chciałbym wspomnieć trzy reformy koniecznie potrzebne w większości instytucji, które znam. Przede wszystkim uczenie się faktów na pamięć nie stanowi już realnego planu studiowania i jest nie tylko niepotrzebne, lecz wręcz szkodliwe: uczenie się faktów, do których wszyscy mamy dostęp w telefonie, odwraca uwagę od cennych treści programu studiów i odpowiada za wykształcanie w studentach apatycznego podejścia do samego wykształcenia. Po drugie, modulacja programów nauczania sprawia, że istnieje ryzyko, iż wybór kursów na uczelni zmieni się w „polowanie na łatwe zaliczenia”, przez co, jeśli student wybierze przedmioty w niewłaściwej kolejności lub pominie kluczowy kurs, wspólny mianownik między tymi kursami zostanie utracony. Po trzecie, nie można dopuścić, aby konkurencja pomiędzy tysiącami uczelni spowodowała inflację ocen – tj. szczodre obdarowywanie dobrymi ocenami przez uniwersytety walczące o finansowe przetrwanie. Aby zapobiec takiej ewentualności, należy wprowadzić jeszcze bardziej systematyczny i złożony system rankingowy – na przykład pod względem przejrzystości jakości stopni naukowych.

Uniwersytet przygotowuje obywateli, a nie specjalistów

Podsumowując, uniwersytet i wyższe wykształcenie nie są połączone wyłącznie z ideą budowania zrozumienia teorii i empirii. Koncepcja uniwersytetu również obejmuje ideał wszechstronnego wykształcenia. W moim przekonaniu podstawowym zadaniem edukacji jest poszerzanie ogólnej wiedzy studentów poprzez nauki humanistyczne takie jak historia, filozofia i etyka, wzbogacanie i dalsze rozwijanie umiejętności językowych oraz zachęcanie studentów poprzez udział w programach wymiany do poznawania z bliska innych kultur. W odniesieniu do tego ostatniego uważam, że jedna z myśli Alexandra von Humboldta jest dzisiaj wyjątkowo aktualna zarówno w Europie, jak i w USA, a mianowicie „Najbardziej niebezpieczne poglądy na świat mają ludzie, którzy nie poznali świata”. Dlatego też uważam, że taka wymiana kulturowa jest niezwykle cenna. Oferuje ona dogłębną wiedzę na temat danego tematu, daje studentowi różne narzędzia i metody teoretyczne oraz rozwija zdolność krytycznego myślenia o nich, a także o analizach empirycznych, w ten sposób umożliwiając studentowi myślenie w celu uzyskania kompetencji, elastyczności oraz terminowości, tak niezbędnych w obecnych czasach. Jednak oprócz tych korzyści studenci mogą zyskać lepsze wykształcenie z szerokim spojrzeniem na świat. W czasach, w których rosną nastroje populistyczne (z których większość opiera się na irracjonalnych konstruktach, zmanipulowanych interpretacjach danych oraz braku znajomości obcych kultur), edukacja – na wszystkich poziomach, a nie tylko edukacja wyższa – pozostaje jedną z fundamentalnych przeciwwag dla tych poważnych zagrożeń dla każdego wolnego społeczeństwa.

Stefan Kolev, profesor ekonomii politycznej, Uniwersytet Nauk Stosowanych, Zwickau, Niemcy

Artykuł został przygotowany przez firmę Tavex oferującej szeroki wybór złota inwestycyjnego, ponad 50 walut z całego świata oraz szybkie i tanie przekazy pieniężne TavexWise.

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