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Home > Temat dnia > Wapowanie może uratować miliony osób

Wapowanie może uratować miliony osób

Palenie papierosów to niebezpieczny nałóg. Z powodu chorób będących konsekwencją długoletniego wdychania niebezpiecznych związków chemicznych zawartych w dymie – takich choćby jak kancerogenne metale ciężkie – każdego roku umiera nawet 6 milionów ludzi na świecie. W samej Polsce, palenie tytoniu powoduje śmierć ponad 60 tysięcy osób rocznie. Ograniczenie palenia powinno być więc priorytetem każdego rządu dbającego o zdrowie publiczne, a jedną z metod walki z nałogiem są coraz popularniejsze elektroniczne papierosy.

O tym, iż e-papierosy stanowić mogą zdrowszą i bezpieczniejszą – choć wcale nie obojętną dla zdrowia – alternatywę tradycyjnych wyrobów tytoniowych mówi się zapewne tak długo, jak produkty dostępne są na rynku. Liczne badania wskazują, iż w parze wodnej będącej produktem podgrzewania specjalnego liquidu, jest zdecydowanie mniej niebezpiecznych związków – w tych skrajnie szkodliwych metali. Kolejne dowody na to, iż e-papierosy mogą stanowić broń w walce z śmiertelnym żniwem tytoniu przynosi artykuł niedawno opublikowany w magazynie Tabacoo Control. Chodzi o bardzo ciekawą analizę przeprowadzoną przez zespół badawczy prowadzony przez Davida Levy’ego z University Medical Center w Waszyngtonie. Opiera się ona na kompleksowym wykorzystaniu modeli komputerowych, biorących pod uwagę różnorodne czynniki ryzyka oraz korzyści płynące z zastąpienia tradycyjnych papierosów ich nowocześniejszymi, elektronicznymi zamiennikami. Celem badania było określenie ile osób może zostać „uratowanych” przed śmiercią z powodu chorób wynikających z długoletniego palenia, w różnych scenariuszach, w których tytoń zastąpiony jest liquidami. Badacze projektujący analizę wzięli pod uwagę nie tylko sytuacje, w której palacze przerzucają się na e-papierosy, ale także takie, w których osoby nie uzależnione od nikotyny zaczynają wapować. Co ciekawe, w swoich wyliczeniach zdecydowali się także znacznie zwiększyć poziom szkodliwości e-papierosów w stosunku do tego, co przewiduje się obecnie.

Obiecujące wyniki badań

Jakie są wyniki obliczeń? Oszałamiające! W najbardziej optymistycznym scenariuszu, w którym 10 procent osób uzależnionych od papierosów rzuca palenie w ciągu następnych dziesięciu lat, aż 6,6 miliona palaczy może uniknąć przedwczesnej śmieci! Gdyby tak się stało, łączna liczba lat, które mogliby przeżyć zwiększyłaby się o 87,7 milionów! W zdecydowanie bardziej pesymistycznych wyliczeniach, zastąpienie palenia wapowaniem może uratować życie nawet 1,6 milionie osób w ciągu 10 lat.

Jak twierdzi profesor onkologii, David Levy w wywiadzie z agencją prasową Reuters, wyniki jego badań oznaczają w praktyce, iż stare przepisy prawa powinny być stopniowo zastępowane przez takie regulacje, które mogłoby zachęcać osoby palące do zastępowania papierosów ich elektrycznymi wersjami.

Badanie opublikowane w magazynie Tabacoo Control, znanym raczej z niechętnego nastawienia do elektronicznych papierosów, spotkało się z ogromnym zainteresowaniem opinii publicznej oraz mediów, czego nie kryje tak główny autor analizy, jak i współautorzy – David Abrams, Raymond Niaura oraz Ron Borland. Zależy im przy tym, aby wyniki ich wyliczeń stały się impulsem dla organizacji zajmujących się kwestią zdrowia publicznego, do bardziej zaciętej pracy na rzecz alternatywnych sposobów walki z nałogiem nikotynowym. Co więcej, uwagę badaniu powinni poświęcić także aktywiści antynikotynowi, którzy promują nakładanie daleko idących ograniczeń na rynek e-papierosów, twierdząc, iż są one równie szkodliwe dla zdrowia jak tradycyjne wyroby tytoniowe.
Jak podkreślają autorzy badania, organizacje zajmujące się zdrowiem publicznym, skłonnych raczej do stawiania barier i wprowadzania w życie kolejnych zakazów dotyczących wapowania, w konsekwencji przestało koncentrować swoje wysiłki przede wszystkim na kwestii papierosów, będących przecież najbardziej śmiercionośnym sposobem dostarczania organizmowi nikotyny.

Przeszkody na drodze do wapowania

Palaczom w Stanach Zjednoczonych nie pomagają także przedstawiciele z FDA, czyli rządowej Agencji Żywności i Leków (ang. Food and Drug Administration), zajmującej się nie tylko kontrolą produktów spożywczych oraz wyrobów medycznych, ale także tworzeniem przepisów dotyczących nikotynowych terapii zastępczych. Mimo wielu przekonujących danych z badań, nadal nie uważają elektronicznych papierosów za sposób walki z nałogiem, który należy promować w społeczeństwie. Co więcej, ich negatywna kampania przeciwko e-papierosom powoduje, iż wiele palaczy nie ma świadomości, iż śmiercionośny nałóg mogą zastąpić mniej szkodliwą alternatywą.
W Polsce sytuacja także daleka jest od idealnej. Na mocy unijnej dyrektywy tytoniowej od kilku miesięcy ograniczono mocno dostęp do e-papierosów, zakazując choćby ich sprzedaży w internecie, czy korzystania z inhalatorów nikotyny w miejscach publicznych. A to nie jedyna przykra zmiana, z do której muszą przywyknąć e-palacze. Rząd Prawa i Sprawiedliwości głosem Ministerstwa Finansów zapowiedział bowiem kilka miesięcy temu wprowadzenie akcyzy na liquidy do e-papierosów, a nowe przepisy wejść mają w życie wraz z początkiem przyszłego roku. W praktyce oznaczać to będzie przede wszystkim wzrost cen produktów do wapania – producenci płynów nie będą mieć bowiem innej możliwości, aby poradzić sobie z poważnymi obciążeniami, jakie spowoduje nowy podatek.

Lekceważenie badań naukowych dotyczących e-papierosów, które mogą stanowić doskonałe oręże w walce z śmiertelnymi konsekwencjami palenia, wydaje się być motywowane nie tyle ignorancją organów ustawodawczych, ale przede wszystkim chęcią zysku. Jak przewidują, akcyza ma bowiem załatać budżet państwa, przynosząc nawet wielomilionowe wpływy. Wygląda więc na to, iż to rachunek ekonomiczny stawiany jest na pierwszym miejscu, przed zdrowiem publicznym. A to podejście krótkowzroczne – na chorobach związanych z paleniem tracą nie tylko sami palacze, ale także państwo polskie wydające ogromne pieniądze na ich leczenie.

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