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Stres – cichy zabójca – jak sobie z nim radzić?

Stres to sposób w jaki człowiek odbiera presję życia. Wszystkie formy stresu wywołują reakcje fizyczne ciała. Definicja słownikowa podaje, że stan organizmu wywołany działaniem chemicznym, fizycznym, czy też emocjonalnym bodźca szkodliwego – stresora, jest odpowiedzialny za psychiczne lub fizyczne napięcie, co może przekładać się na różnego rodzaju choroby. Znaczna część ludzi nie potrafi radzić sobie ze stresem, a kłopoty i frustracje jakie przeżywają każdego dnia bardzo negatywnie wpływają na cały organizm człowieka. Długotrwały stres wytwarza hormony stresu, które wnikają do tkanek i do mózgu. Najbardziej szkodliwy dla zdrowia człowieka jest stres przewlekły, który jest często przyczyną obniżenia poczucia własnej wartości, potęguje zachowania depresyjne, a także odbiera radość życia.

Nieustanna pogoń za lepszym materialnie życiem, stawianie przed sobą wygórowanych wyzwań, a co za tym idzie brak czasu na odpowiedni relaks i odprężenie są przyczyną wzrostu stężenia kortyzolu – hormonu stresu. Wtedy też spada poziom serotoniny oraz dopaminy w mózgu, które są odpowiedzialne za przekazywanie sygnałów pomiędzy neuronami w ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym. Osoby żyjące w ciągłym stresie znacznie mniej uwagi poświęcają na zdrowe odżywianie, bywa, że nadużywają alkoholu, a nawet sięgają po narkotyki. Dochodzi też do izolacji od przyjaciół i znajomych.

Przyczyn stresu jest wiele. Wszystko, co pozbawia człowieka radości i burzy spokój należy do czynników stresujących. Najważniejsze z nich to: rozwód, śmierć bliskiej osoby, długotrwała choroba, ubóstwo, niezadowolenie z pracy, bezsilność, brak zrozumienia i miłości.

Postęp cywilizacji, jak również szybko zmieniające się warunki życia codziennego sprawiają, że coraz większy odsetek ludzi żyje w nieustannym pośpiechu co potęguje napięcie i stwarza warunki dla kolejnych sytuacji stresogennych. Do najczęstszych dolegliwości powiązanych ze stresem należą bóle głowy, tiki nerwowe, drżenie rąk i nóg, przyspieszony oddech, a nawet kołatanie serca, potliwość, suchość w ustach, pogorszenie się koncentracji i kłopoty z pamięcią.

Wszelkie nieprawidłowości oraz zachwianie równowagi zdrowotnej mają ogromny wpływ na ludzki organizm. Obok wymienionych objawów stresu inne równie dokuczliwe to wypadanie włosów, bezsenność, dolegliwości żołądkowe, czy nawet choroba wrzodowa. Jest to znak, że w organizmie zaczęły się niepokojące zmiany, których konsekwencje mogą doprowadzić do poważnych uszczerbków na zdrowiu, a nawet do śmierci. Zdaniem naukowców choroby nowotworowe mogą być wynikiem „stresu komórki”. Stres wyzwala wolne rodniki, które są odpowiedzialne za wiele różnych chorób, niszczą komórki, których pierwotne funkcje zanikają.

Wyróżniamy cztery rodzaje stresu: fizyczny, emocjonalny i umysłowy, chemiczny i termiczny. Stres fizyczny jest wynikiem braku snu, silnego zmęczenia wywołanego nadmiarem pracy, intensywnymi ćwiczeniami fizycznymi, urazami i zranieniami, jak również różnymi zabiegami, operacjami, przewlekłym bólem, czy infekcjami. Przewlekły stres jest przyczyną chorób serca, cukrzycy, choroby Altzheimera i chorób immunologicznych. Stres emocjonalny i umysłowy to wynik gniewu, depresji oraz lęku i strachu. Ten rodzaj stresu wynika z braku kontroli nad sytuacją, poczuciem trwania w sytuacji bez wyjścia. Człowiek cierpiący z powodu lęków, frustracji, czy depresji, trwający w poczuciu winy ma zniekształcony obraz świata i utrwalone złe wzorce myślenia.

Kolejnym przykładem stresu jest stres chemiczny. Powodują go niewłaściwe nawyki żywieniowe, nadużywanie alkoholu i papierosów, a także substancje takie jak pleśń, spaliny, pestycydy, kurz i alergeny. Substancje wywołujące stres chemiczny mogą znajdować się w zapachach do odświeżania domu. Rtęć zawarta w mięsie ryb, kadm, który znajduje się w owocach morza, a także chlor w wodzie wodociągowej bardzo negatywnie wpływają na ludzki organizm i przyczyniają się do wielu chorób. Ostatnim rodzajem stresu jest stres termiczny wywołany przebywaniem w niskich i wysokich temperaturach przez dłuższy czas.

Każdy człowiek reaguje na stres indywidualnie. W obliczu trudnych kryzysowych sytuacji bardzo ważne jest wsparcie osób bliskich. Pomoc i zrozumienie rodziny, czy przyjaciół jest w tym przypadku najważniejszą formą redukowania napięcia i stresu. Inne równie istotne to regularne ćwiczenia, zdrowe i racjonalne odżywianie, relaks i odpoczynek, zdrowy sen, a także psychoterapia.

W dzisiejszych czasach stres wywoływany jest przez wiele różnych czynników. Niestety nie na wszystkie mamy wpływ. Kluczem do redukcji stresu jest przede wszystkim kontrolowanie własnych myśli, odrzucenie dotychczasowych wzorców na rzecz nowych, dobre relacje z innymi ludźmi. Wieloletnie badania prowadzone przez dr Hansa Eysencka i jego współpracowników Uniwersytetu w Londynie dowiodły, że długotrwały stres umysłowo-emocjonalny aż sześciokrotnie potęguje ryzyko zachorowania na chorobę nowotworową i choroby serca w stosunku do palenia papierosów, wysokiego poziomu cholesterolu, czy nawet nadciśnienia tętniczego.

Jest wiele sposobów na redukcję stresu. Niestety jak we wszystkim potrzeba konsekwencji w ich stosowaniu. Warto nauczyć się panować nad niekontrolowanymi emocjami na co dzień, niż później zmagać się z ich przykrymi następstwami. Oto kilka skutecznych recept na walkę z napięciem i nerwami. Przede wszystkim należy zadbać o siebie od środka. Regularnie uzupełniać dietę produktami bogatymi w magnez, witaminę B6, kwasy omega-3, ciemną czekoladę, orzechy, tłuste ryby morskie, banany oraz produkty zbożowe, warzywa strączkowe i olej lniany. Ważne aby zwrócić uwagę na to, w jaki sposób spożywa się posiłki. Nie powinno się jeść w pośpiechu. Picie zielonej herbaty, czy melisy doskonale uspokoi nerwy. Pomocne będą odpowiednio dobrane suplementy. Zdrowy 7-8 godzinny sen i ruch powinny być podstawą trybu życia. Ogromną rolę odgrywa pozytywne myślenie i pielęgnowanie w sobie dobrych emocji. Umysł człowieka może zdziałać wiele, a radość z małych rzeczy dopełni całość i może zdziałać cuda. Wystarczy uwierzyć.

Aldona Rogulska
Redaktor merytoryczny, dziennikarka, publicystka, pisarka, poetka.
http://www.strefawolnejprasy.pl

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