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Home > Bezpieczeństwo > Co to jest odzież ochronna – charakterystyka

Co to jest odzież ochronna – charakterystyka

Rozmaite środowiska pracy generują odmienne zagrożenia dla zdrowia człowieka. Pracodawca zobowiązany jest do zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa zatrudnianym pracownikom. Obowiązek ochrony zdrowia przybiera rozmaite formy. Jedną z nich jest odzież ochronna, którą pracodawca musi zapewnić zatrudnionym pracującym w warunkach zagrażających im zdrowiu. Jej dobór powinien być adekwatny do rodzaju występującego zagrożenia, tak, by minimalizowała ona niebezpieczeństwo. Odzież ochronna może mieć różne rodzaje i bywa stosowana w wielu branżach.

Czym jest odzież ochronna?

Odzież ochronna to strój roboczy, którego zadaniem jest zabezpieczenie pracownika przed szkodliwym wpływem działania czynników zewnętrznych związanych ze stanowiskiem pracy. Wbrew obiegowej opinii, odzież ochronna nie jest tym samym co odzież robocza. Ta pierwsze ma o wiele ważniejsze znaczenie i znacznie szerszy zakres wykorzystania. Odzież ochronna zabezpiecza życie i zdrowie pracownika, odzież robocza zaś jedynie jego własne ubranie np. przed zabrudzeniem podczas pracy. Odzież ochronna powinna posiadać specjalne certyfikaty dopuszczające ją do użytku

Konieczność jej stosowania kodyfikuje ustawa z 26 czerwca 1974 r. Jej zapewnienie leży w kwestii obowiązku pracodawcy. Odzież ochronna może występować pod różnymi postaciami, w zależności od branży, w której ma być stosowana oraz zagrożeń, jakie wiążą się z danym stanowiskiem pracy. Zaliczymy do niej zarówno buty z metalowym noskiem, których zadaniem jest ochrona stopy przed zmiażdżeniem, jak i kombinezon, który ma chronić ciało przed oparzeniami.

W jakich branżach stosowana jest odzież ochronna?

Odzież ochronna zazwyczaj kojarzona bywa z zakładami przemysłowymi, w których zatrudnieni mają styczność z żrącymi substancjami lub na magazynach, w których istnieje ryzyko np. upadku ciężkiego ładunku na stopę. Tymczasem, odzież ochronna stosowana jest w wielu rozmaitych branżach. Można ją spotkać w zawodach związanych z: medycyną, techniką kosmiczną, w przemyśle, w laboratoriach, wojsku, policji, straży pożarnej, sporcie i innych dziedzinach.

Wymogi prawne

Odzież ochronna jest niezbędnym wyposażeniem zakładów pracy, w których pełnienie obowiązków na danym stanowisku wiąże się z narażeniem na szkodliwe działanie czynników zewnętrznych. Na pracodawcy ciąży obowiązek zapewnienia swoim zatrudnionym odzieży ochronnej nieodpłatnie. Nawet, kiedy pracownik używa własnej odzieży ochronnej, nie zwalnia to pracodawcy z obowiązku jej zapewnienia. Zatrudniony może korzystać z własnych produktów, ale wówczas na pracodawcy ciąży obowiązek wypłacenia zatrudnionemu stosownego ekwiwalentu. Odzież ochronna powinna być odpowiednio dopasowana do zagrożeń wynikających z pracy na danym stanowisku oraz posiadać certyfikaty dopuszczające ją do użytku.

Przed jakimi typami zagrożeń zabezpiecza odzież ochronna?

Rodzajów zagrożeń występujących w miejscach pracy może być wiele. Ich charakter jest zależny od branży, rodzaju stanowiska i środowiska, w jakim pracownik zobowiązany jest do przebywania. Nie sposób wymienić wszystkich typów zagrożeń, jakie w zakładach pracy mogą występować. Jednak można podać te, które są najbardziej powszechne i najczęściej spotykane. Wśród nich należy wymienić: czynniki chemiczne, ryzyko poniesienia uszkodzeń mechanicznych, różnego typu promieniowanie, czynniki biologiczne, porażenie prądem, trujące pyły, zbyt wysoka lub niska temperatura panująca w otoczeniu. Do każdego z wymienionych typów zagrożeń, stosowany jest inny rodzaj odzieży ochronnej. Warto wspomnieć też o tzw. odzieży ostrzegawczej, która również zalicza się do typu produktów ochronnych. Jej zadaniem jest przede wszystkim sygnalizowanie obecności pracownika, zwiększanie jego widoczności. Jest ona wykorzystywana np. podczas robót drogowych, gdzie na pracownikach ciąży ryzyko potrącenia przez przejeżdżające pojazdy. Odzież ostrzegawcza zwiększa widoczność, minimalizując zagrożenie płynące ze strony przejeżdżających samochodów.

Materiały, a rodzaje zagrożenia

Odzież ochronna powinna być dobrana głównie na podstawie zagrożenia występującego w miejscu pracy i materiału ubrania, który zapewni przed nim ochronę. Wśród najczęściej pojawiających się należy wymienić: ortalion jako materiał na odzież chroniącą przed przemoknięciem i przewianiem, proban o właściwościach trudnopalnych stosuje się przy stanowiskach generujących zagrożenie czynnikami gorącymi, tkaniny o charakterze chemoodpornym, jak np. tytan, stosuje się na stanowiskach, które generują ryzyko zetknięcia się z kwasami i zasadami lub pyton, z którego szyje się odzież przeznaczoną do ochrony przed piaskowaniem lub unoszeniem się pyłów.

Rodzaje odzieży ochronnej

Odzież ochronna może występować pod różnymi postaciami również ze względu na kształt, fason, część garderoby i sposób noszenia. Do najbardziej popularnych rodzajów odzieży ochronnej należy zaliczyć: wzmocnione obuwie lub specjalne noski zakładane na buty zwykłe w okolicach palców, rękawice, kombinezony różnego rodzaju, kaski i hełmy, kaptury, google, płaszcze.

Wsparcie merytoryczne: MSpro – producent odzieży ochronnej.

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